v0.15.1 (2022-06-26)

Bug fixes

  • Fix type of type argument of @option and @argument. Specifically, tuple types weren’t correctly described.

  • Reimplement @argument and @option without calling the corresponding Click methods (#124):

    • make decorators returned by @argument reusable by not relying on bugged Click implementation

    • remove unnecessary copy of **attrs in @option.

v0.15.0 (2022-06-16)

New features and enhancements

  • Renamed Argument.help_record to Argument.get_help_record. #116

  • Fixed typos and some type annotations. #116

  • In mixins, moved call to super() at the beginning of __init__. #119.

  • Made Cloup pass mypy --strict. #122

Bug fixes

  • The title of the default option group was “Other options” when the only other parameter help section was “Positional arguments”. It’s now “Options”. #120

Breaking changes

  • Renamed Argument.help_record to Argument.get_help_record.

  • In mixins, moved call to super() at the beginning of __init__. #119.


v0.14.0 (2022-05-09)

New features and enhancements

  • You can show a “Positional arguments” help section by passing a non-empty help description for at least one of the arguments of a command/group. #113

  • cloup.Group now extends cloup.Command and, as a consequence, supports option groups and constraints. #113

  • GroupedOption is now an alias of cloup.Option.

  • Add the new params Click argument to @command and @group signatures. This argument is supported only for click >= 8.1.0. See

Breaking changes

  • BaseCommand was removed. This shouldn’t cause any issue to anybody.

  • cloup.Group extends cloup.Command, similarly as click.Group extends click.Command.

  • OptionGroupMixin.format_options was renamed to format_params. This means you can’t just mix it with click.Command to print help sections for option groups, you have to override format_help and call format_params.

  • The new format_params doesn’t call super().format_commands as format_options did: that’s what Click does and Cloup (reluctantly) did. Now, instead, cloup.Command calls format_params in format_help and then, for multi-commands, calls format_commands directly.

  • ConstraintMixin.format_help was removed. This means you can’t just mix it with a click.Command to make it print the “Constraints” help section, you need to call format_constraints explicitly in your command format_help.

v0.13.1 (2022-05-08)

  • Since version 8.1.0, Click does not normalize the command attributes help, short_help and epilog while Cloup assumed them to be normalized as in previous releases. This lead to Cloup printing non-normalized help and epilog text when using click >= 8.1.0.

v0.13.0 (2022-02-14)

  • Add shortcuts for click.Path types which uses pathlib.Path as path_type by default: - cloup.path - cloup.dir_path (file_okay=False) - cloup.file_path (dir_okay=False)

v0.12.1 (2021-10-14)

  • Fix: when OptionGroupMixin is mixed with Group, subcommands weren’t shown.

v0.12.0 (2021-09-17)

  • Feature: when a subcommand is mistyped, show “did you mean <subcommand>?”.

  • Doc fixes.

v0.11.0 (2021-08-05)

No major changes in this release, just refinements.

  • Attributes of parametric constraints are now public. #82

  • Slightly changed the repr() of RequireExactly(3): from RequireExactly(n=3) to RequireExactly(3).

  • Minor code refactoring.

  • Docs fixes and improvements.

v0.10.0 (2021-07-14)

New features and enhancements

  • New feature: subcommand aliases. #64 #75

  • Command decorators: improvements to type hints and other changes (#67):

    • mypy can now infer the exact type of the instantiated command based on the cls argument. — Unfortunately, this required the use of @overload to work around a mypy limitation

    • in @group, allow cls to be any click.Group — previously it had to be a subclass of cloup.Group

    • in Group.command and add type hints and make all arguments except name keyword-only. Technically this is a (minor) incompatibility with the click.Group superclass, but it’s coherent with Cloup’s @command and @group

    • add Cloup-specific arguments to the signature of @command; if the developer uses one of such arguments with a cls that doesn’t support them, Cloup augments the resulting TypeError with extra information.

  • Export Click types from Cloup namespace for convenience. #72

  • In dark and light themes, the epilog is now left unstyled by default. #62

Bug fixes

  • SectionMixin.add_section called super().add_command rather than self.add_command. This caused add_command in subclasses not to be called. #69

  • Fix Context.check_constraints_consistency not being propagated to descendant contexts. #74

Breaking changes

  • In Group.command and all arguments except name are now keyword-only.

  • The name parameter/attribute of OptionGroup was renamed to title.

  • In SectionMixin (thus, in Group), added a ctx: Context attribute to make_commands_help_section and format_subcommand_name to support the show_subcommand_aliases setting.

v0.9.1 (2021-07-03)

  • Fixed bug: shell completion breaking because of Cloup checking constraints despite ctx.resilient_parsing=True

  • Added public attributes to ConstraintMixin: optgroup_constraints, param_constraints and all_constraints.

  • Cleaned up code and added other type hints (to internal code).

  • Docs fixes and improvements. Fixed dark theme styling.

v0.9.0 (2021-06-30)

Fixed bugs

  • Context.show_constraints not having effect because of wrong default for Command.show_constraint. #49

  • Command (OptionGroupMixin) raising error if params is not provided. #58

New features and enhancements

  • Add detailed type hints for @argument, @option, @command and @group. This should greatly improve IDE code completion. #47, #50

  • You can now use constraints as decorators (or @constrained_params) to constrain a group of “contiguous” parameters without repeating their names (see Constraints as decorators). This is a breaking change (see section below). #8

  • Added the require_any and require_one constraints (as aliases). #57

  • Simplify and improve the error argument of Rephraser (see Rephrasing constraints). #54

  • The formatter setting row_sep can now take a RowSepPolicy that decides whether and which row separator to use for each definition list independently, e.g. based on the number of definitions taking multiple lines (see: Row separators). #37

  • Added method format_subcommand_name(name, cmd) to SectionMixin to facilitate it combination with other Click extensions that override format_commands(). #59

  • @option_group and Section now show a better error message when one forgets to provide the name/title as first argument.

  • Fixed/improved some type hints and added others.

Breaking changes

  • Calling a constraint – previously a shortcut to the check() method – now returns a decorator. Use the method Constraint.check() to check a constraint inside a function. #8

  • The semantics of row_sep changed. Now, it defaults to None and must not end with \n, since the formatter writes a newline automatically after it. So, row_sep="" now corresponds to an empty line between rows. #41

  • In @command and @group make all arguments but name keyword-only. #46

  • In Context.settings and HelpFormatter.settings, use a MISSING constant instead of None as a flag for “empty” arguments. #40

  • Constraint.toggle_consistency_checks was replaced with a Context setting called check_constraints_consistency. #33

  • ConstraintViolated requires more parameters now. #54


  • Restyling to improve readability: increased font size and vertical spacing, decreased line width. Restyled the table of contents on the right side. Ecc.

  • Reorganized and rewrote several parts.

v0.8.1-2 (2021-05-25)

(I had to release v0.8.2 just after v0.8.1 to fix a docs issue)

  • Work around a minor Click 8.0.1 issue with boolean options which caused some Cloup tests to fail.

  • Cosmetic: use a nicer logo and add a GitHub “header” including it.

  • Slightly improved readme, docs and examples.

v0.8.0 (2021-05-19)

Project changes

  • Cloup license changed from MIT to 3-clause BSD, the one used by Click.

  • Added a donation button.

New features and enhancements

  • Cloup now uses its own HelpFormatter:

    • it supports alignment of multiple definition lists, so Cloup doesn’t have to rely on a hack (padding) to align option groups and alike

    • it adds theming of the help page, i.e. styling of several elements of the help page

    • it has an additional way to format definition lists (implemented with the method write_linear_dl) that kicks in when the available width for the standard 2-column format is not enough (precisely, when the width available for the 2nd column is below formatter.col2_min_width)

    • it adds several attributes to fine-tune and customize the generated help: col1_max_width, col_spacing and row_sep

    • it fixes a couple of Click minor bugs and decides the column width of definition lists in a slightly smarter way that makes a better use of the available space.

  • Added a custom Context that:

    • uses cloup.HelpFormatter as formatter class by default

    • adds a formatter_settings attributes that allows to set the default formatter keyword arguments (the same argument can be given to a command to override these defaults). You can use the static method HelpFormatter.settings to create such a dictionary

    • allows to set the default value for the following Command/Group args:

      • align_option_groups,

      • align_sections

      • show_constraints

    • has a Context.setting static method that facilitates the creation of a context_settings dictionary (you get the help of your IDE).

  • Added a base class BaseCommand for Command and Group that:

    • extends click.Command

    • back-ports Click 8.0 class attribute context_class and set it to cloup.Context

    • adds the formatter_settings argument

  • Hidden option groups. An option group is hidden either if you pass hidden=True when you define it or if all its contained options are hidden. If you set hidden=True, all contained options will have their hidden attribute set to True automatically.

  • Adds the conditions AllSet and AnySet.

    • The and of two or more IsSet conditions returns an AllSet condition.

    • The or of two or more IsSet conditions returns an AnySet condition.

  • Changed the error messages of all_or_none and accept_none.

  • The following Click decorators are now exported by Cloup: argument, confirmation_option, help_option, pass_context, pass_obj, password_option and version_option.

Breaking changes

These incompatible changes don’t affect the most “external” API used by most clients of this library.

  • Formatting methods of OptionGroupMixin and SectionMixin now expects the formatter to be a cloup.HelpFormatter. If you used a custom click.HelpFormatter, you’ll need to change your code if you want to use this release. If you used click-help-colors, keep in mind that the new formatter has built-in styling capabilities so you don’t need click-help-colors anymore.

  • OptionGroupMixin.format_option_group was removed.

  • SectionMixin.format_section was removed.

  • The class MultiCommand was removed, being useless.

  • The OptionGroupMixin attribute align_option_groups is now None by default. Functionally, nothing changes: option groups are aligned by default.

  • The SectionMixin attribute align_sections is now None by default. Functionally, nothing changes: subcommand sections are aligned by default.

  • The ConstraintMixin attribute show_constraints is now None by default. Functionally, nothing changes: constraints are not shown by default.


  • Switch theme to furo.

  • Added section “Help formatting and theming”.

  • Improved all sections.

v0.7.1 (2021-05-02)

  • Fixed a bug with & and | Predicate operators giving AttributeError when used.

  • Fixed the error message of accept_none which didn’t include {param_list}.

  • Improved all_or_none error message.

  • Minor docs fixes.

v0.7.0 (2021-03-24)

New features and enhancements

  • In constraint errors, the way the parameter list is formatted has changed. Instead of printing a comma-separated list of single labels:

    • each parameter is printed on a 2-space indented line and

    • both the short and long name of options are printed.

    See the relevant commit.

  • Minor improvements to code and docs.

v0.6.1 (2021-03-01)

This patch release fixes some problems in the management and releasing of the package.

  • Add a py.typed file to ship the package with type hints (PEP 561).

  • Use setuptools-scm to automatically manage the version of the package and the content of the source distribution based on the git repository:

    • the source distribution now matches the git repository, with the only exception of, which is not tracked by git; it’s generated by setuptools-scm and included in the package;

    • tox.ini and Makefile were updated to account for the fact that doesn’t exist in the repository before installing the package.

  • The new attribute cloup.__version_tuple__ stores the version as a tuple (of at least 3 elements).

v0.6.0 (2021-02-28)

New features and enhancements

  • Slightly improved return type (hint) of command decorators.

  • Minor refactoring of ConstraintMixin.

  • Improved the documentation.

Breaking changes

  • Removed the deprecated GroupSection as previously announced. Use the new name instead: Section.

  • In and Group.command, the argument section was moved after the cls argument so that the signatures are now fully compatible with those of the parent class (the Liskov substitution principle is now satisfied). If you (wisely) passed section and cls as keyword arguments in your code, you don’t need to change anything.

v0.5.0 (2021-02-10)


  • Drop support to Python 3.5.

New features and enhancements

  • Added a subpackage for defining constraints on parameters groups (including OptionGroup’s).

  • The code for adding support to option groups was extracted to OptionGroupMixin.

  • Most of the code for adding support to subcommand sections was extracted to SectionMixin.


  • GroupSection was renamed as Section.

Project changes

  • Migrated from TravisCI to GitHub Actions.

v0.4.0 (2021-01-10)


  • This is the last release officially supporting Python 3.5.

New features and enhancements

  • Changed the internal (non-public) structure of the package.

  • Minor code improvements.

Project changes

  • New documentation (hosted by ReadTheDocs)

  • Tox, TravisCI, Makefile completely rewritten.

v0.3.0 (2020-03-26)

Breaking changes

  • option_groups decorator now takes options as positional arguments *options;

  • Group.section decorator now takes sections as positional arguments *sections;

  • align_sections_help was renamed to align_sections;

  • GroupSection.__init__() sorted_ argument was renamed to sorted.

Other changes

  • Additional signature for option_group: you can pass the help argument as 2nd positional argument.

  • Aligned option groups (option align_option_groups with default True).

  • More refactoring and testing.

v0.2.0 (2020-03-11)

  • [Feature] Add possibility of organizing subcommands of a cloup.Group in multiple help sections.

  • Various code improvements.

  • Backward incompatible change:
    • rename CloupCommand and CloupGroup resp. to just Command and Group.

v0.1.0 (2020-02-25)

  • First release on PyPI.